On the Topics and Style of Soviet Animated Films

Ülo Pikkov

Abstract


This article provides a survey of Soviet animation and analyses the thematic and stylistic course of its development. Soviet animated film emerged and materialised in synch with the fluctuations of the region’s political climate and was directly shaped by it. A number of trends and currents of Soviet animation also pertain to other Eastern European countries. After all, Eastern Europe constituted an integrated cultural space that functioned as a single market for the films produced across it by filmmakers who interacted in a professional regional network of film education, events, festivals, publications etc.

Initially experimental, post-revolutionary Russian animation soon fell under the sway of the Socialist Realist discourse, along with the rest of Soviet art, and quickly crystallised as a didactic genre for children. Disney’s paradigm became its major source of inspiration both in terms of visual style and thematic scope, despite the fact that Soviet Union was regarded as the ideological opposite of the Western way of life and mindset. The Soviet animation industry was spread across different studios and republics that adopted slightly varied production practices and tolerated different degrees of artistic freedom. Studios in the smaller republics, such as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in particular, stood out for making films that were more ideologically complicated than those produced in Moscow.


Keywords


Soviet Animation

References


Ajanović, Midhat 2004. Animation and Realism. http://www.ajan.se/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=30&Itemid=36 (13 March 2016).

Amidi, Amid 2006. Cartoon Modern: Style and Design in Fifties Animation. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.

Асенин, Сергей 1986. Мир мультфильма. Идеи и образы мультипликационного кино социалистических стран. Москва: Искусство.

Beumers, Birgit 2007. ‘Comforting Creatures in Children’s Cartoons’. – Marina Balina, Larissa Rudova (eds.), Russian Children’s Literature and Culture. New York, Oxon: Routledge, 153–172.

Bendazzi, Giannalberto 1994. Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation. London: John Libbey.

Bendazzi, Giannalberto 2015. Animation: A World History. Volume I: Foundations – The Golden Age. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Bendazzi, Giannalberto 2016. Animation: A World History. Volume III: Contemporary Times. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Брумберг, Зинаида 1979. ‘Любимая работа’. – Жизнь в кино. Ветераны о себе и своих товарищах. Вып. 2. Москва: Искусство, 20–23.

Dorfman, Ariel; Mattelart, Armand 1992. How to Read Donald Duck: Imperialist Ideology in the Disney Comic. 3rd edition. S.l.: I.G. Editions.

Fadina, Nadezda 2016. Fairytale Women: Gender Politics in Soviet and Post-Soviet Animated Adaptations of Russian National Fairytales. PhD thesis, University of Bedfordshire. http://uobrep.openrepository.com/uobrep/handle/10547/603530 (29 March 2016).

Furniss, Maureen 2007. Art in Motion: Animation Aesthetics. London: John Libbey.

Gareeva, Anna 2013. ‘Vyacheslav Kotenochkin’s Nu, pogodi! Soviet Animation and the Characteristics That Make It Particular to Its Alternative Modernist Context’. http://www.academia.edu/11697038/Vyacheslav_Kotenochkin_s_Nu_pogodi_Soviet_animation_and_the_characteristics_that_make_it_particular_to_its_alternative_modernist_context (23 March 2016).

Hames, Peter 2008. The Cinema of Jan Švankmajer: Dark Alchemy. London: Wallflower Press.

Haynes, John 2003. New Soviet Man: Gender and Masculinity in Stalinist Soviet Cinema. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Ходатаев, Николай 1936. ‘Искусство мультипликации’. – Мультипликационный фильм. Сборник. Москва: Кинофотоиздат, 15–99.

Хржановский, Андрей 1983. ‘Верность избранному пути’. – Сергей Асенин (ed.), Мудрость вымысла. Мастера мультипликации о себе и своем искусстве. Москва: Искусство, 196–200.

Iordanova, Dina 2003. Cinema of the Other Europe: The Industry and Artistry of East Central European Film. London, New York: Wallflower Press.

Иванов-Вано, Иван 1950. Рисованный фильм. Москва: Госкиноиздат. http://risfilm.narod.ru/ (23 March 2016).

Иванов-Вано, Иван 1962. Советское мультипликационное кино. Москва: Знание.

Капков, Сергей (ed.) 2007. Энциклопедия отечественной мультипликации. Москва: Алгоритм.

Kelly, Catriona 2007. Children’s World: Growing up in Russia, 1890–1991. New Haven, London: Yale University Press.

Kiik, Silvia 2006. ‘Avo Paistiku võitlused võimude, tsensuuri ja Goskinoga I–III’. – Teater. Muusika. Kino 4, 75–83; 5, 97–107; 6, 90–97.

Kirt, Liina 1984. ‘Priit Pärn: “Olen tegutsev pessimist”’. – Noorus 12, 16.

Kitson, Clare 2005. Yuri Norstein and Tale of Tales: An Animator’s Journey. Eastleigh: John Libbey.

Kononenko, Natalie 2011. ‘The Politics of Innocence: Soviet and Post-Soviet Animation on Folklore Topics’. – Journal of American Folklore 124, 494, 272–294.

Laaniste, Mari 2008. ‘Pushing the Limits: Priit Pärn’s Animated Cartoons and Soviet Cinema Censorship’. – Eva Näripea, Andreas Trossek (eds.), Via Transversa: Lost Cinema of the Former Eastern Bloc. Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Arts, 47–55.

Lotman, Jurij 1976. Semiotics of Cinema. Trans. Mark E. Suino. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

MacFadyen, David 2005. Yellow Crocodiles and Blue Oranges: Russian Animated Film since World War Two. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Moritz, William 1997. ‘Narrative Strategies for Resistance and Protest in Eastern European Animation’. – Jayne Pilling (ed.), A Reader in Animation Studies. Sydney: John Libbey, 38–47.

Mole, Richard 2012. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union: Identity, Discourse and Power in the Post-Communist Transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London, New York: Routledge.

Норштейн, Юрий 1988. ‘Движение стиля.“Лабораторные записи”’. – Искусство кино 10, 104–116.

Pikkov, Ülo 2010. Animasophy: Theoretical Writings on the Animated Film. Trans. Eva Näripea. Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Arts.

Пироженко, Ольга 2004a. ‘История в картинках. Гендерные репрезентации в советской анимации’. – Гендерные исследования 12, 139–151.

Пироженко, Ольга 2004b. ‘Мама, Папа, Я. (Ре)конструкция советской семьи в сериале “Простоквашино”. – Такая, 19 November. http://takaya.eu/texts/essay/prost/ (29 March 2016).

Pontieri, Laura 2012. Soviet Animation and the Thaw of the 1960s: Not Only for Children. Herst: John Libbey.

Roberts, Graham 2007. ‘Dream Factory and Film Factory: The Soviet Response to Hollywood 1917–1947’. – Paul Cooke (ed.), World Cinema’s ‘Dialogues’ with Hollywood. Basingstoke, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 35–51.

Trossek, Andreas 2008. ‘When Did It Get Political? Soviet Film Bureaucracy and Estonian Hand-drawn Animation’. – Eva Näripea, Andreas Trossek (eds.), Via Transversa: Lost Cinema of the Former Eastern Bloc. Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Arts, 31–45.

Trossek, Andreas 2011. ‘Tumeda animatsiooni surm Euroopas: Priit Pärna “Hotell E”’ / ‘The Death of Dark Animation in Europe: Priit Pärn’s Hotel E’. – Kunstiteaduslikke Uurimusi 20, 3–4, 97–123.

Stites, Richard 1992. Russian Popular Culture: Entertainment and Society since 1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wells, Paul 1998. Understanding Animation. London: Routledge.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.